Albert Libunao

Saturday, October 20, 2012 0 comments


Bulacan (Filipino: Bulakan) (PSGC: 031400000; ISO: PH-BUL), officially called the Province of Bulacan (or Lalawigan ng Bulakan in Filipino) or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region (Region 3) in the island of Luzon, north of Manila (the nation's capital), and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region. Bulacan was established 15 August 1578.
It has 569 barangays from 21 municipalities and 3 component cities (Malolos, the capital city; Meycauayan; and San Jose del Monte). Bulacan is located immediately north of Metro Manila. Bordering Bulacan are the provinces of Pampanga to the west, Nueva Ecija to the north, Aurora and Quezon to the east, and Metro Manila and Rizal to the south. Bulacan also lies on the north-eastern shore of Manila Bay.
Bulacan prides itself on its rich history.[citation needed] The province figures prominently in Philippine History. Many national heroes and political figures were born in Bulacan. The province was also one of the first to revolt against Spain. The province is honored as one of the 8 rays of the sun in the national flag. It is the home of the "Three Republics." These are the Republic of Real de Kakarong de Sili (1896) in Pandi, the Republic of Biak-na-Bato (1897) and the very first Philippine Republic in Malolos(1899–1901). In recognition thereof, these three republics established in Bulacan have been incorporated in the official seal of the province of Bulacan.
In 2007, Bulacan recorded the highest population in Region 3, and second in the whole Philippines with 2,826,926 people.
In 1899, the historic Barasoain Church in Malolos was the birthplace of the First Constitutional Democracy in Asia. It is also the cradle of the nation's noble heroes, of great men and women; also home to many of the country's greatest artists, with a good number elevated as National Artists.
Today, Bulacan is among the most progressive provinces in the Philippines. Its people—the Bulaqueños (or Bulakenyo in Filipino)— are regarded as highly educated, enterprising and industrious.[citation needed] It is well known for the following industries: Marble and Marbleized Limestone, Jewelry, Pyrotechnics, Leather, Aquaculture, Meat and Meat Products, Garments, Furniture, High-Value Crops, and Sweets and Native Delicacies, and a wide variety of high-quality native products.[citation needed]
Bulacan has fast become an ideal tourist destination, owing to its vital role in Philippine history, and its rich heritage in culture and the arts.[citation needed] The province is popularly known for its historical sites; nostalgic old houses and churches; idyllic ecological attractions; religious attractions; colorful and enchanting festivals; swimming and various themed attractions; and a wide selection of elegant native crafts and sumptuous delicacies. It is also home to numerous resorts, hotels, restaurants, and other recreational facilities.

Princess Mozo Alcanzado-Butuan City

Friday, October 5, 2012 0 comments

Butuan City

The City of Butuan (Filipino: Lungsod ng Butuan; Butuanon: Dakbayan hong Butuan) is the regional center of Caraga, serving as an administrative region of the Philippines; it is a highly urbanized city. It is located at the northeastern part of Agusan Valley, Mindanao, sprawling across the Agusan River. It is bounded to the north, west and south by Agusan del Norte, to the east by Agusan del Sur and to the northwest by Butuan Bay. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 309,709 people.[2]
The name "Butuan" is believed to have originated from the sour fruit, batuan. Other etymology sources say that it comes from a certain "Datu Buntuan", a chieftain who once ruled over Butuan.[citation needed]
Butuan was the capital of Agusan del Norte until 2000 when Republic Act 8811 transferred the capital to Cabadbaran City. However many of the provincial government offices are still located there, including the provincial capitol, as are many the Caraga regional offices of the national government agencies.

By the 10th century, Butuan had established trading relations with the Kingdom of Champa, in what is now southern Vietnam, and Srivijaya empire of Sumatra.
By the 11th century, Butuan was a center of trade and commerce in the Philippines and was the location of the prehispanic Indianized Kingdom of Butuan. Archaeological finds from that era include the nine balanghai called "the Butuan boats," and the finds in Ambangan, Libertad near the old El Rio de Butuan and Masao River.
First mass On March 31, 1521, an Easter Sunday, Magellan ordered a mass to be celebrated which was officiated by Friar Pedro Valderrama, the Andalusion chaplain of the fleet, the only priest then. The other priest, the French Bernard Calmette (Bernardo Calmeta) had been marooned at Patagonia with Juan de Cartagena for being implicated in the mutiny at San Julian. Conducted near the shores of the island, the Holy First Mass marked the birth of Roman Catholicism in the Philippines. Colambu and Siaiu were the first natives of the archipelago, which was not yet named "Philippines" until the expedition of Ruy Lopez de Villalobos in 1543, to attend the mass among other Mazaua inhabitants, together with visitors from Butuan who came with the entourage of Rajah Colambu, king of Butuan
Controversy has been generated with regard to the holding of the first mass—whether it was held in Limasawa, Leyte in Masao, Butuan City, in the hidden isle made up of barangays Pinamanculan and Bancasi inside Butuan, in the latest discovered site in between agusan sur and surigao sur, the little barangay of Barobo, or elsewhere. It is sure, however, that Ferdinand Magellan did not drop anchor by the mouth of Agusan River in 1521 and hold mass to commemorate the event which was held at Mazaua, an island separate from 1521 Butuan which was in the geographical conception of Europeans who wrote about it was a larger entity than what it is now. Antonio Pigafetta who wrote an eyewitness account of Magellan's voyage described in text and in map a Butuan that stretched from today's Surigao up to the top edge of Zamboanga del Norte.
The first municipal election in Butuan took place on March 1902 in accordance with Public Law No. 82[3] which coincided with the American occupation of the place.
During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II, Butuan was razed to the ground when the guerrilla forces attacked the enemy garrison during the middle of 1943. In 1945, the Philippine Commonwealth troops in Butuan together with the recognized guerrillas attacked the Japanese forces during the Battle of Agusan. On October 20, 1948, still recovering from the war, the entire municipality was ruined by a fire.
The boom of the logging industry from the 1950s to the middle of 1970s made Butuan the "Timber City of the South" and led to an influx of business and fortune seekers from other provinces. The flourishing logging industry inspired and prompted Congressman Marcos M. Calo to file a bill converting Butuan into a city and on August 2, 1950, Butuan became a city.[4]
Butuan was reclassified from a chartered city to a "highly urbanized city" on February 7, 1995.


Butuan City has a land area of 816.62 km2, which is roughly 4.1% of the total area of the Caraga region. With an estimated total population of 300,000, it has an average density of 367 persons per km2, higher than the regional average density of 101 persons per km2.
The existing land use of the city consists of the following uses: agriculture areas (397.23 km2), forestland (268 km2), grass/shrub/pasture land (61.14 km2) and other uses (90.242 km2). Of the total forestland, 105 km2 is production forest areas while 167.5 km2 is protection forest areas.
The forestland, as mentioned earlier, comprised both the production and protection forest. The classified forest is further specified as production forest and protection forest. In the production forest industrial tree species are mostly grown in the area. The production forest on the other hand, is preserved to support and sustain necessary ecological performance. One is the watershed areas will dry up and during heavy rain, rapid water run-off will occur creating flash floods. And in sunny days, rapid evaporation happens, leaving the area arid.
The city is endowed with swamplands near its coastal area. These swamp areas are interconnected with the waterways joined by the Agusan River. Most of the swamplands are actually mangroves that served as habitat to different marine species.
Filling material needs of the city are extracted usually from the riverbank of Taguibo River. Others are sourced out from promontories with special features and for special purpose.
The fishing ground of Butuan is the Butuan Bay of which two coastal barangays are located. It extends some two kilometers to the sea and joins the Bohol Sea. These are barangays Lumbocan and Masao.


Butuan City is the center of education in the Caraga region. There are now two universities in the city. The first home grown university of the region is the Father Saturnino Urios University. The second is the Caraga State University (CSU), which was formerly known as the Northern Mindanao Institute of Science and Technology (NORMISIST). There is also the Timber City Academy, the oldest Chinese school in the region. Other than the privately run academic institutions that address the collegiate-level needs of the locals, most basic-level schools are publicly run, notably the Butuan City SPED Center, the Butuan Central Elementary School, and the Agusan National High School (ANHS) which are adjacent to each other and found at the old center of the city. Teachers from these two schools have significant exposure to complimentary seminars and workshops with partnership programs such as the Philippine-Australia Project on Basic Education (PROBE), enabling these schools and others to maintain high rating National Achievement Test results.[citation needed] There are also religious schools in the city, like the Liberty Foundational Christian Academy (LFCA), that are aimed at producing "God-loving, smart and trust-worthy students."


The Kahimunan Festival is celebrated every third Sunday of January in celebration of the city patron Sr. Sto. Niño. This celebration is a Butuanon version of the Sinulog festival of Cebu City. Kahimunan is a Lumad term which means "gathering".
The Cultural festival/tourism consciousness week is a week long celebration that lasts from the last week of July up to August 2 in celebration of the Charter Day of Butuan.
The Abayan Festival, a part of the Cultural Festival, is held in celebration of St. Anne, patroness of Agusan River, which is celebrated every last Sunday of July.
Adlaw Hong Butuan is the charter day celebration of Butuan, which includes a thanksgiving mass, motorcade, palagsing festival, street party recognitions of outstanding Butuanons and city government employees night.
Butuan celebrates its annual fiesta, the Balangay Festival, for the celebration of the city patron St. Joseph every whole month of May, with the the exact feast day of St. Joseph on May 19. The city holds many events such as summer league basketball championship games, thanksgiving mass, and more.


“Palagsing” is a local delicacy popularly made in Banza, one of the old poblacion of Butuan City. The popularity of making Palagsing in Banza is attributed to the abundance of Lumbiya (Metroxylon sagu Rottb.) where Unaw or lumbiya starch is harvested from the Palm Tree. Another popular ingredient is young coconut meat taken from coconut trees. The mixture of unaw, young coconut and brown sugar make palagsing moist and chewy. They are delicately wrapped by banana leaves and are boiled for 30 minutes to create the soft consistency of palagsing.

Tourist Attractions

The Macapagal Bridge

Agusan River

The Agusan River is the the widest and most navigable river in Mindanao. Natives who live on the banks of this river pay tribute to their Patroness, Senora Sta. Ana (Saint Anne) every last Sunday of July in the Abayan Festival.

Asian Century Museum

The Asian Century Museum is roughly the newest museum in Butuan. Unlike most museums in the city, they focus more on Eastern Asia's history and future.


The Balangays (or Balanghai) are ancient boats found in Butuan. They were excavated in the Balangay Shrine, across the Masao River from Bood Promontory. They played a major role in Butuan because Butuan was, and still is, a port city. Since its discovery, the Balangays are an icon of Butuan. Now, the Kaya ng Pinoy, Inc. recreated the Balangay boats and sailed it on their project, the Balangay Voyage. So far they have only sailed in Southeast Asia, though they are planning to sail around the world.

Balangay Shrine Museum

The Balangay Shrine Museum, located in Brgy. Libertad, lays the graveyard of the Balangay 1 dated 320 A.D. or 1688 years old. The Balangay shrine museum is located at Balanghai, Libertad, Butuan City. This wooden plank-build and edge-pegged boats measured an average of 15 meters in length and 3 meters wide across the beam. To date, 9 Balangays have already been discovered in Ambangan, Libertad. Three have been excavated and others are still in Site.

National Museum-Butuan branch or the regional museum

This museum is the repository of historical and cultural materials and artifacts that proves Butuan's prehistoric existence and rich cultural heritage. There are two exhibit galleries. The Archaeological Hall and Ethnological Hall specimens of stone crafts, metal crafts, woodcrafts, potteries, goldsmith, burial coffins, and other archaeological diggings are exhibited. At the Ethnological Hall are exhibits of contemporary cultural materials the Butuanon or every Filipino for matter used for a living.

Mount Mayapay

Looming southwest of the Agusan Valley is this majestic mountain plateau. It rises to 2,214 feet (675 m) above sea level. Mount Mayapay got its name from the ancient Madjapahit Empire. The history behind the Sri-Vishaya period bears much meaning and influence of Butuan's pre-historic and archaeological discoveries.

Delta Discovery Park

Delta Discovery Park is a newly opened zip-line in Butuan. Delta Discovery Park is located at Brgy. Bonbon, Butuan City. A Hidden Paradise in the heart of the city. This is also known as the longest zip-line in Mindanao and in Asia as well with a length of 1.3 kilometers. a project of former Mayor Democrito Plaza.

Bood Promontory Eco Park

This historic hill is believed to have been the site where Magellan and his men celebrated the first Catholic Mass on Philippine soil and erected a cross when he landed in Mazaua on March 31, 1521.
The highest elevation nearest to the seaside village of present day Masao, Bood is a wooded area located at a bend in the Masao River (El Rio de Butuan), overlooking Butuan Bay and ancient Butuan as well as the serpentine Masao River.
Today, the indigenous Hadlayati tree still abound lording over a clonal nursery and tree park, amidst fishponds and archaeological treasures.
According to the chronicles of Spanish historian Pigafetta, this event took place in the afternoon of March 31, 1521 after the Easter Mass was celebrated in the morning of the same date. Two Butuanon brother kings attended these Easter ceremonies. Pigafetta also noted the surrounding fields and balanghai boats on the bay that could be seen from the hill.
The eco-park was established to provide the people of Butuan and its visitors a place to rekindle the past amidst a relaxing natural setting.


Mhar Domangcas


Pangasinan is a province of the Republic of the Philippines. The provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is located on the western area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf and South China Sea. It has a total land area of 5,368.82 square kilometers (3336.030 sq mi). According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 2,645,395 people in 477,819 households. The total population is projected to rise to 3,039,500 in 2010.[1] According to the 2007 Philippine general elections, Pangasinan has a voting population of 1,360,807, which is the second highest in the Philippines.
Pangasinan is the name for the province, the people, and the primary language spoken in the province. Indigenous Pangasinan speakers are estimated to number at least 1.5 million. The Pangasinan language is one of the officially recognized regional languages in the Philippines. Pangasinan is spoken as a second-language by many of the ethnic minorities in Pangasinan. The most significant minority ethnic groups in Pangasinan are the Ilocano, Bolinao, and Tagalog.
The name Pangasinan means "land of salt" or "place of salt-making"; it is derived from the prefix pang, meaning "for", the root word asin, meaning "salt”, and suffix an, signifying "location." The province is a major producer of salt in the Philippines. Dagupan City is known for its bangus or "milkfish" festival, named after the fish that has made the city famous.
A kingdom called Luyag na Kaboloan existed in ancient Pangasinan before the Spanish conquest that began in the 15th century. The ancient Pangasinan people were skilled navigators and the maritime trade network that once flourished in ancient Southeast Asia connected Pangasinan with other peoples of Southeast Asia, India, China, and the Pacific.
Pangasinan occupies a strategic geo-political position in the central plain of Luzon, known as the rice granary of the Philippines. Pangasinan has been described as a gateway to northern Luzon and as the heartland of the Philippines.

Jaymarie Rocamora - Our Lady of Nazareth


Come & Explore Capiz, Roxas City!

The abundance of marine life makes Roxas City the "Seafood Capital of the Philippines." This environment-friendly city is home to one of the richest fishing grounds in the country. Being a recipient of the Cleanest and Greenest Component City in Western Visayas Award in the Gawad Pangulo sa Kapaligiran (GPK) Cleanliness and Environmental contest is a clear testament of its people's commitment in ensuring a healthier and brighter future for all its residents and visitors as well. Recently, Roxas City has been a recipient of major awards from various government agencies. This year the Department of Health (DOH) awarded this city with its 2nd Red Orchid Award for being "100 percent tobacco-free." It has also gained the Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG) Seal of Good Housekeeping and lauded the Best Police Station in the region by the Philippine National Police (PNP).

Joshua Wilrod L. Ortega. =))))


Nueva Ecija is the largest province and the biggest rice producer of Central Luzon and the Philippines, thus, often referred to as the “Rice Bowl of the Philippines.”
The first Augustinian mission in lowland Nueva Ecija was founded in Gapan in 1595. It is home to a Roman Catholic church of Byzantine architecture built from 1856 to 1872.

Historic Barrio Labi (Bongabon)

The resthouse of the Quezon family is located in this barrio, along the National Highway going to Baler Aurora. It is also the place of death of Mrs. Aurora Quezon, wife of former Philippine President Manuel Luis Quezon.

Tabacalera of San Isidro
Centuries-old brick walls of the Tabacalera in San Isidro remain as witness to the Novo Ecijanos’ 100-year oppression, from 1782 to 1882, when the province became the center of the tobacco monopoly in Central Luzon and was thus restricted from raising other crops.

Gen Luna Statue and Marker (Cabanatuan City)
A statue of Philippine hero General Antonio Luna astride a horse stands at the plaza in front of the cathedral on the exact spot where the brave general was assassinated in 1899 in the city that adopted him subsequently.

Apolinario Mabini Marker (Cuyapo)
Site of the arrest of Philippine hero Apolinario Mabini, known as “the sublime paralytic,” by the Americans on December 10, 1899.

Trial House
Owned by revolutionary leader and Novo Ecijano General Manuel Tinio. Built during the early Commonwealth period, it features ornately designed turn-of-the-century furniture and a life-size figure of esteemed Nove Ecijano Don Kapitan Berong in stained glass.

Sedeco of San Isidro
The Grand Sedeco house in San Isidro, which General Emilio Aguinaldo frequented, marks this gallant town that has proven time and again to be cradle of Filipino heroes. It was here that General Frederick Funston planned the capture of Aguinaldo, first President of the Philippine republic, during the Philippine-American war.

Wright Institute of San Isidro
One of the first high schools established outside Metro Manila during the American period.

Dalton Pass
Located in Capintalan, Carranglan, the five-hectare area blessed with a cool climate houses the monument of General Dalton and a tower that borders the provinces of Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya. Uphill is a World War II memorial in black marble where a historical account of the war had been etched in English and Japanese.

Camp Pangatian (Cabanatuan City)
Began as a military training camp for twenty years until converted into a concentration camp for allied prisoners of war during the Japanese occupation. A popular tourist destination among war veterans by way of the WWII Veteran’s Homecoming Program.

Churches of Nampicuan, Carranglan, and Pantabangan
Church ruins of identical Augustinian architecture can still be found in the three upland missions.


Minalungao Park
Declared as a national park, it features a breathtaking view of the narrow but deep Penaranda River. On both sides of the river bank are 16 meter high limestone walls. The ridge formation of white sculptured limestone walls shows the might of the great river.

General Luna Falls (Rizal)
The easternmost barrio of Rizal nestled uphill on the foot of the Sierra Madre mountain range boasts of one of Central Luzon’s hidden treasures: a towering waterfall of more than a hundred feet descending widely across a rocky mountain wall into over twenty pools of varying levels and depths.

Mt. Olivete (Bongabon)
A hundred-step stair leads to the church built by the Adarnista spiritual community on the mountaintop. Frequented by pilgrims who bathe in and drink the water of its springs believing it to be medicinal.

Gapintalan (Carranglan)
Maintained by the Kalanguya tribal community from Ifugao, its rivers and low-lying hill are ideal for hiking and communing with nature. A gateway to the Cagayan Valley, it was a strategic location during WWII’s liberation period. Tunnels, war artifacts, and stories of gold digging abound in the area.

Palaspas Falls
Located in San Jose City, it is ideal for picnics and bathing especially during summer.

Gabaldon Falls
The lure of Gabaldon, Nueva Ecija. The ten-feet falls are surrounded by huge rock formations and rippling ice-cold water. Located within the 200-hectare Sabani Estate Agricultural College.

Revisiting Laguna - A Place to Remember

Thursday, October 4, 2012 0 comments

Since I was little I always visit my Lolo in Calamba, so I considered Calamba as my hometown. Located at the foot of Mount Makiling, it lies at the southern terminal of the South Luzon Expressway.

Last September 15, 2012, my family went to Calamba again, this time to revisit famous sites so I can write something for this blog. 

Just less than an hour drive from Buendia, we first proceeded to my Lolo’s house. Then, we ate at Aling Ely’s Restaurant located along the Calamba National Highway, which is famous for their Lechon and Lumpiang Sariwa.

Since Calamba became famous because of our national hero and martyr Dr. Jose Mercado Rizal, the first place we revisited was Rizal’s house or also called as Rizal’s Shrine, which is the one of the most popular tourist spots in Laguna. There were no entrance fee inside the Rizal Shrine but there were donation boxes. The money collected there was used as funds for keeping the house and its grounds clean.

As I roamed around in Rizal’s Shrine, I saw the different antique furniture which have been preserved through the years. My most favorite places in the house were the main stairs and the main dining area with a big piece of cloth hanging in the ceiling serving as their fan when pulled by their maid.

Just across the street, we found the big Banga which was known to be the origin of the name of the city, the Tagalog words "Kalan Banga" meaning clay stove and water jar, respectively. The story goes that during early days of Spanish occupation, a lady carrying a water jar and a stove was met by 2 Spaniards who asked her, in Spanish, what the name of the place was. The lady thought they were asking for the name of what she was carrying and nervously uttered "kalan banga". Unable to pronounce the words correctly, the Spaniards just called the place Calamba since then.

Then we went to the city plaza where Rizal’s tall statue stood.  Erected on a 7 hectares (17 acres) land at Calamba City Hall Complex, the monument is 22 feet (6.7 m) tall, with the number symbolizing the 22 languages and dialects used by Rizal. It sits on top of a 15-step podium, symbolizing one decade since Rizal was born. It is the tallest Jose Rizal Monument in the World.

We next proceeded to UP Los Banos to buy fresh carabao milk and yogurt. Our trip to Laguna will not be complete without buying them. Laguna is also famous for its Buco Pies.

Then we went to our lot in Los Banos where we intend to build a mini-resort someday. The grasses have grown more than 9 feet tall already.

Speaking of resorts, Calamba is a popular tourist destination with its hot spring resorts, most of the resorts are located in Barangay Pansol and Barangay Bucal. With a total of 661 resorts, Calamba City is known as the "Resort Capital of the Philippines".

I have been to several resorts in Laguna, some big ones and others were private pools. The water was really hot but refreshing. 

These resorts make me want to visit Calamba and Los Banos again and again.

Likewise, Calamba is very near other tourist spots within Laguna which I already visited which guarantees relaxation and fun, namely:
  • Villa Escudero in San Pablo
  • Caliraya Resort in Caliraya
  • Pagsanjan Falls in Pagsanjan
  • Wood carvings and papier-mache places in Paete

So , if you are looking for a place near Metro Manila  to relax,  have fun, simply see and enjoy the historical sites and wonderful tourist spots, come and visit Laguna. It is really more fun in the Philippines with places such as Laguna.

Aila Caleja


The Bicol Region or Region V (also known as Bicolandia) is one of the 17 regions of the Philippines. Bicol (also spelled Bikol) is composed of four provinces in the Bicol Peninsula, the southeastern end of Luzon island, and two island-provinces adjacent to the peninsula.[2] Its regional center is Legazpi City in Albay province.[3][4]

The Bicol Region is located in the southernmost tip of Luzon Island, the largest island in the Philippine archipelago. The total land area of the region is 18,054.3 km2 (6,970.8 sq mi)[5], which or 5.9% of the total land area of the country. Around 69.3% of the total land area is alienable and disposable while the remaining 30.7% is public forest areas.[2]
The region is bounded by Lamon Bay to the north, Pacific Ocean to the east, and Sibuyan Sea and Ragay Gulf to the west. The northernmost province, Camarines Norte, is bordered to the north by the province of Quezon, thereby connecting the region to the rest of Luzon.
The region is composed of six provinces, namely, AlbayCamarines NorteCamarines Sur,Sorsogon and the island-provinces of Catanduanes and Masbate. It has one independent component cityNaga City, and six component cities - IrigaLegazpiLigaoMasbate City,Sorsogon City, and Tabaco. Masbate City and Sorsogon City are cities within their namesakeprovinces.
As of 2010, Camarines Sur is the largest province in terms of area and population, occupying 5,481.6 km2 (2,116.5 sq mi) or around 30.4% of the total land area with a population of 1,822,371. Catanduanes is the smallest in terms of area as well as population with only 1,511.5 km2 (583.6 sq mi) or 8.4% of the total regional area and a population of 246,300.[1]
The political and administrative center of the region is Legazpi City.[2] Together with Naga and Sorsogon Cities, they are leading in the region in terms of urbanization and hubs of the economic activity, as well as the cultural, business and religious centers of the region.

Powered by Blogger.
Our Lady of Nazareth Blog © 2011 | Designed by Interline Cruises, in collaboration with Interline Discounts, Travel Tips and Movie Tickets